Book notes: Mastering Stand-Up by Stephen Rosenfield

Mastering Stand-Up by Stephen Rosenfield book summary review and key ideas.

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Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian by Stephen Rosenfield


“This entertaining and sharply written guide – for both beginners breaking into comedy and professionals seeking to improve their sets and advance their careers – examines the work of great comedians such as Louis C. K., Jerry Seinfeld, Eddie Izzard, Moms Mabley, Hannibal Buress, Sarah Silverman, Richard Pryor, and more as a means of illustrating the most important techniques of performing and writing stand-up.  

Here, Stephen Rosenfield lays out a clear plan for achieving success, candidly explaining what works, what doesn’t, and why. Including a 12-item “Successful Comedian’s To-Do List,” Rosenfield states, ‘Get undeniably good at each of these and you can kiss your day job good-bye. You will be a pro.'” -Audible

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Opening thoughts:

I saw this come up in my audible recommendations today so I added to to my read list for the month. I’ve actually been practicing standup comedy on and off for a bit now, and the reviews said this book was helpful. I’m excited to see what kind of insight the author will give

Key notes:

  • Comedy needs two essential elements: problems and knowledge

Part One: Beginning Our Work Together

Chapter 1: things I know about you 

  • Truth: If you’re funny with your friend and family, that’s a sign you’ll be funny onstage and that you can be both a writer and a performer of comedy
    • You have the talent. What you need now is the craft
  • What does it take to get undeniably good? Talent but mostly work
    • Lots of work. Years of work. Being obsessed with your work

Chapter 2: The Road Ahead

  • Get good at these 12 things:
    1. Find your originality. What’s original about your sense of humor
    2. Master the techniques of standup comedy writing
      • Capture the funny things you say by writing them down
    3. Master the techniques of standup comedy performing
      • A standup, like an actor, must have the ability to produce onstage the emotions that give life to his performance night after night in a way that seems spontaneous and unrehearsed to the audience
    4. Create your comic persona
      • You must develop a vivid and distinctive onstage personality. The persona must be manifest in your material, how you look, what you wear, and how you move and speak
    5. Deepen your understanding of comedy
    6. Study the great comedians. Study the great comedians of the past, as well as the comedians you love
    7. Perform. Performing must be a regular part of your week 
    8. Never blame your audience
      • Remember that all of the time, your audience members are your collaborators who will teach you how to be a better comedian
    9. Know the forms of standup comedy
    10. Understand the comedy business
    11. Trust your nerves. It’s okay to be nervous
    12. Have fun. This is actually a requirement because once someone becomes an audience member, they start to feel collectively what the performer is feeling

Chapter 3: No

  • The audience expects to laugh quickly and frequently
  • You don’t want generic jokes in your act
    • You want jokes that are so clearly stamped with your personality, opinions, and attitudes that no one can tell them as successfully as you
  • If someone asks you to tell a joke, you’ll tell them no because you don’t have the type of jokes they’re looking for
    • Your jokes are carefully ordered to have a flow and are woven into each other

Part Two: The Forms of Standup Comedy

Chapter 4: Observational Standup

  • In all art, there is form and content
    • Form refers to a structure
    • Content refers to what is inside that structure
  • Observational standup refers to a writing structure designed to express the comedians observations, opinions, and feelings about what is going on around him or her
    • They can be short or long. They aren’t stories, but observations
    • This is the go to form for jokes about the news
  • This form of comedy should sound conversational, like you’re talking about your thoughts and coming up with it on the spot
  • Mark twain didn’t lecture his audience. He talked to them about things they already knew
    • What was surprising, original, and funny was his take on things

Chapter 5: Anecdotal standup

  • 3 keys to transforming a funny story into anecdotal standup:
    1. Building frequent laugh lines intro he story by
    2. Organizing the story not chronologically but by subject followed by laugh lines that
    3. Seem genuine coming from your persona

Chapter 6: the standup sketch

  • A standup sketch is essentially a one person play where you act out all the parts
    • The comedian enacts the characters until the scene ends. He does not interrupt the scene with comments made as himself
    • It is an uninterrupted performance of a single scene

Chapter 7: act outs

  • Act outs are another form of stand up where are the comedian acts out other characters or himself in a scene
  • General guideline about writing comedy: it’s better to show the audience something than it is to tell them about it
    • Let them see it. It’s almost always funnier

Chapter 8: put down humor – celebrities

  • Put down humor is comedy that gets laughs by putting someone down, making fun of them
    • Put down humor has five targets: celebrities, people in your life like your significant other, hecklers in your audience, innocent people in your audience, and yourself
  • Comedy is not nice
    • It is unflinchingly, unapologetically honest
    • Comedy looks unblinkingly at life and says, a lot of this sucks, let me be specific
  • Comedy is an entertainment that calls out the bad stuff
    • It ridicules the bad stuff by taking the things we struggle with and worry about, and by ridiculing these things comedy transforms them from overwhelming to laughable
    • It’s enables us to laugh at the struggles and problems we share. And when we can laugh, we know we’re OK. And when we hear other people in the room laugh, we know we’re not alone
      • For a glorious moment the comedian lifts our worries of our shoulders and unites us in laughter
  • The underlying message of comedy is this: you have problems, I have problems, but we are OK
    • You are not alone, we are in this damn thing together
    • Comedy has a much higher purpose than being nice. It helps us survive
  • The person and the reason for ridiculing the famous person must be well known and the audience must agree

Chapter 9: put on humor – people in your life

  • Master the craft of writing and performing stand up comedy and apply those crafts to creating jokes that take a fresh approach to taboo subjects that genuinely matter to you

Chapter 10: put down humor – hecklers

  • A heckler is someone who is insulting you in a voice that others can hear
    • It’s important to distinguish a heckler from a non-heckler
      • First, make sure this person is a heckler
      • Second, get the audience on your side by not responding at first
      • Third, have heckler jokes ready to keep them on your side
  • Your heckler material should do two things:
    1. It should get the audience laughing at the hecklers expense. Hecklers need to learn there is a price to be paid for their rudeness
    2. It should send a message to the heckler to shut up. If you don’t, it could encourage them to go tit for tat with you 
  • It’s important to know that ultimately you have the power when you’re being heckled
    • The audience is there to hear you not the heckler because you and only you have the microphone, you can totally dominate the conversation
    • You can write material that completely outdoes your opponent

Chapter 11: Put Down Humor – insult comedy

  • Insult comedy is a form of standup comedy that’s aimed at non-hecklers in your audience
    • These people you handle differently because the audience needs to feel like behind your insults are of fun and camaraderie
  • There is a sound guideline inside of comedy that you have an expansive license to ridicule everything you are, different parts of your identity, your background, gender, ethnicity, etc
  • To create your own insult jokes, it’s useful to think of the common innocent things that go on in your audience when you’re performing 
  • Insult jokes work effectively when they are delivered in a context that includes the following:
    1. A sense of warmth and fun coming from the comedian
    2. A democratic spirit in the jokes that send the message that there’s something wrong with every group of people, not just one
    3. Jokes that aren’t personal or hurtful

Chapter 12: put down humor – self deprecating humor

  • The spirit of the comedian is vulnerable but indestructible
    • The comedian looks unblinkingly at his or her shortcomings and utilize them not to create sympathy or pity but to create laughter
    • That’s not the mindset of a victim, it’s the mindset of a hero

Chapter 13: Crowdwork

  • Crowdwork is when a comedian invites a member or members of the audience to engage with him in a back and forth conversation
    • It’s a form of stand of that in addition to being entertaining is enormously useful in a variety of specific circumstances you’ll encounter as a comedian
      • Crowd work is part of an MC’s skill set
    • This is a great way to get an audience who isn’t laughing at your jokes to refocus on you and start laughing
      • As an audience member, you can ignore a comedian when his jokes aren’t funny. But you can’t ignore someone who is on stage talking directly to you
  • Crowdwork is also a good way to stretch your act if you need to fill more time and you’ve already used all your material
    • Secret: Much of crowd work is written
  • Whether crowd work is written or improvised, it is done in four clearly defined steps:
    1. Ask a simple question that can be answered easily in a word or two. This makes it easy to engage and it saves time
    2. Observe and listen to the person answering
      • Your response should key off what they said or how they said it or how they look or whom they’re sitting with
    3. Repeat or paraphrase the audience member’s response to your question so that everyone can hear it
    4. Respond to the audience member’s answer or to something specific you’ve observed about him or her
  • If you ask a yes or no question, you can write a joke response to both answers
    • The key to writing crowdwork is asking questions to which you can determine the range of answers and then writing jokes that are set up by those answers
  • You can expand the illusion of spontaneity into your written, non-crowdwork set pieces by introducing them with crowdwork

Chapter 14: the comic flaw

  • When a comedian creates a persona that embodies a shortcoming, this form of standup comedy is called a comic flaw 
    • 2 keys to this form:
      1. The comedian must not be aware of his or her flaw
      2. If the shortcoming is a malicious one like bigotry, it must be clear in the writing that it’s being held up for ridicule

Chapter 15: character standup comedy

  • A standup’s character performance is obviously fanciful
    • This is different from act outs. The audience knows that these characters exist only onstage
    • The stage persona bears no resemblance to any real person
      • He or she is a made-up character clearly
  • This form is achieved principally through physical means such as how they look, what they’re wearing, and how they act
    • It’s less what they say then how they say it
  • To some degree, all successful comedians create who they are behind the microphone
    • Sometimes their creations are drawn from aspects of their offstage selfs. And sometimes as in character comedy, they’re entirely works of fiction
    • As long as you get consistent laughs, you behind the microphone can be anyone you want to be

Chapter 16: Edgy Standup Comedy

  • When a standup speaks the unspeakable, talks about subjects one shouldn’t discuss, and sometimes using language deemed unacceptable in civil society, this is called edgy standup
  • Edgy comics went after the most dangerously taboo subjects because they had genuine convictions about righting wrongs and about exposing absurdities, hypocrisy, among the powerful and exalted
    • What gives the best edgy comedy it’s bite is that behind the shockingly outrageous jokes are deeply held convictions

Chapter 17: Specialties

  • Some standup specialties include incorporating props, impressions of famous people, magic, or music
  • To nail your specialty, you have to get really good at it
  • The key is to get good at your specialty and make it funny

Chapter 18: Ad Libbing

  • The trick is to learn how to deliver written material in a way that seems so spontaneous the audience thinks you’re making it up on the spot
  • Jonathan winters is the exception to being always funny when ad libbing

Part Three: The Handbook for Creating Standup Comedy Material

Chapter 19: Preparing for Your First Draft

  • Comedy writing is work
    • And the harder you work at it, the better you get
    • Talent is work, and brilliance is obsession with work
    • Think of comedy writer as a hat, put it on your head, and keep it there
  • Capture your sense of humor
  • Don’t steal jokes from other places or people
  • Standup comedy subjects:
    1. How you feel about your life, in the past, now, and what you think your life will be in the future
    2. How you feel about everything else that matters to you – politics, celebrity, pop culture, food, fashion, technology, etc
  • The real subject of your standup comedy is yourself. Your feelings and opinions on the subjects you’re talking about 

Chapter 20: The First Draft

  • In the first draft, do not throw anything out
  • In writing comedy, nothing gets thrown out until it’s tried out
  • The cure to writers block is to stop editing yourself
    • Trying out the material will give you a good sense of where the laughs are
  • Don’t worry about making transitions in your first draft
    • You don’t know the order of your jokes yet, so develop each funny idea as a stand-alone piece of material
  • Don’t worry about wandering off your subject
  • In a first draft, we’re just looking for strong comic ideas
    • From there you’ll figure out the precise wording and how to get the laughs
  • Don’t worry about whether your idea is original
    • Unless you’re stealing another person’s joke or consciously paraphrasing it, you’re not stealing anything
    • Remember, nobody owns a subject
  • Creating the illusion that you’re being spontaneous onstage is called acting
    • The gifted standup comedy writer finds the best way to word a joke
    • Through acting, the standup creates the illusion that the words he has performed time and time again are popping out of his mouth for the very first time
  • Prompts that reliably generate “A” jokes:
    1. Write about people, places, or things that annoy you
      • People who are closest to you, strangers, acquaintances, celebrities, yourself, etc.
    2. Write about anything you want

Chapter 21: Trying Out Your First Draft

  • Paying audiences are the ultimate editor in chief of standup comedy material because they are more focused on the material and will provide the best feedback
  • The hallmarks of good standup teachers are:
    • They’ve been instrumental in mentoring the careers of professional standup
    • You like them and enjoy their classes
    • You feel your work and the work of your fellow students is noticeably improving as a result of their teaching
    • You feel the students are developing their own distinctive voices
  • Request feedback but ultimately it is up to you to accept or reject feedback based on what you feel is right
    • The only feedback you cannot ignore is the laugher or the absence of laugher from paying audiences
  • Consider the source of your feedback
    • Pay the most attention to professional comedy people who make their living writing, performing, or producing comedy. Pay less attention to everyone else 
  • You can try out your material on everyday people, but do not ask for their opinion on it

Chapter 22: setup and punchline

  • In comedy shows, comedians typically shoot for an average ratio of 4 laughs per minute as this is what the audience is expecting 
  • Setup and punchline is a format
    • Some new stand ups will confuse format with content
  • The setup is the essential information the audience needs in order to get the punchline
  • Part of the art and craft of comedy writing is the ability to identify and eliminate words that aren’t needed to get a laugh
  • A set up that is half a line or up to two lines is good. But any more than that is too much
    • The exception is when a long setups purpose is to increase tension that will pay off in a big laugh
  • The key to keeping setups short is to make sure they contain only one subject
    • In addition to clearly stating the subject, the setup needs to be clear about your feelings towards your subject
  • Another feature of a good setup is that it protects the surprise of a punch
    • It misdirects the audience so they can’t tell where you’re going
    • A punchline usually needs to be a surprise. Often the surprise is created by an unexpected shift in attitude from the setup to the punchline
  • A good punchline:
    1. Is concise
    2. Comes as a surprise
    3. Clearly expresses your attitude
  • A roll is a setup-punchline format variation
    • A roll is a setup followed by multiple punchlines, all of which key off the same setup
  • Assignment: Write a roll that’s a setup followed by at least 3 punches, or 5-10 if you can

Chapter 23: working backward

  • Work backward from where you got your laugh, to the beginning of the joke
    • Knowing where your punchline is enables you to write a concise setup

Chapter 24: Creating your set list

  • A set list is the order in which you’ll perform your jokes
  • It’s important to get 1-2 solid laughs in the first 30 seconds of your set
    • You want to answer the audience question of “is this person funny?” as early as possible when you get onstage
  • You want to start with your second strongest jokes, and then build towards the end with your strongest jokes
  • If there’s some feature about you that is salient and initially obvious, start with jokes about that to create an instant connection for the audience
    • Start with the most obvious things you know they’ll notice because it’ll be all they can think about for the rest of your set if you don’t talk about it
  • Identify the jokes that establish your comic persona
    • The more you write and perform, the clearer your comic personality will become
  • You don’t want edgy material up front that pushes audiences away from you
    • You want to end with your best jokes
  • What’s most important is not that your audience remembers your jokes, but that your audience remembers you
    • The last impression you leave has a lot to do with whether or not they’ll want to see you again
  • I’d you plan on doing crowdwork, it’s usually best for the middle of your set after you’ve made your audience laugh and they already trust and like you
  • Your standup routine is not like an essay on a single thesis made up of interrelated subjects
    • Your routine is a piece of entertainment that may span many subjects that have nothing in common
    • The only thing that holds them together is the fact that you are saying them.
      • In standup, you are the transition

Part Four: The Handbook for Performing Standup Comedy

Chapter 25: nerves and the 3 gifts they give you

  • Energy onstage is essential for a performer
    • Your energy stimulates the audiences and enables you to dominate the room
  • Your nerves will give you an exceptional ability to focus on your performance and connect with your audience
  • The single most important part of performing standup is the ability to communicate to your audience that you’re so excited to be up there talking to them
  • Your nerves will give you the energy and concentration you need to do your best onstage
    • Further, the audience will not see the part of your nerves that are unsettling to you

Chapter 26: the single most important thing – joyous communication

  • Joyous communication means that you take joy in communicating to the audience your emotions
  • Focus your mind on realistic, positive thoughts
    • Make it an essential part of your warmup
    • When you’re up next, consciously think this: “I’m gonna get up there and have a great time talking to these people
    • Don’t wait for the audience to show you affection, bring the affection onstage with you

Chapter 27: coming alive onstage – emotional fullness

  • Gifted comedians create a distinct comic persona
    • They’re so clear about who they are that we feel we really know them
  • The key to crystallizing who are are as a standup is learning to be emotionally full onstage
    • This means that the audience knows moment to moment how you feel about what you’re saying
    • It doesn’t mean you’re expressing your feelings loudly, but expressing them clearly
    • The emotion should be as large as you can make it within your persona
      • Make a mountain out of everything
  • In standup, in order to laugh, the audience must know that the performer is alright
    • Therefore, they must always perform the form of the emotion, not the real emotion
  • Performing standup is acting and therefore requires thinking through the emotional life that underpins their jokes

Chapter 28: be in the room

  • In standup, there is no imaginary 4th wall
    • You cant pretend the audience isn’t there. Everybody is in the same room at the same time
  • If someone is being noisy, one technique is to try and make friends with them and then politely asked them to keep it down, therefore you will keep the audience on your side

Chapter 29: Delivery

  • The factors that constitute delivery are pacing, timing, emphasis, and pauses 
  • In stand-up comedy, slow is the optimum pace while maintaining strong energy
    • Speaking slow send the message of self-confidence and that what I have to say is worth hearing
  • Timing is the specific speed you employ in delivering the words and phrases that constitute a specific joke
    • They key to effective timing is knowing the specific attitudes that underpin each of your jokes
  • Emphasis is the words you vocally stress
    • It’s important to emphasize the correct punch word if there is one
  • There are two places in every joke where a pause is necessary:
    1. The first is before the audience starts laughing
      • It should be just a quick pause. Too long and the audience might think you were expecting a laugh when it didn’t come
    2. The second place is after the audience starts laughing
      • This is called a hold. Don’t stop them from laughing by interrupting them
        • When you’re holding while the audience is laughing, you keep performing
        • This is the 2nd part of the hold where an additional laugh is possible. Silently keep performing the attitude that underpins your punch
  • Holding for a laugh also keeps you connected to your audience

Chapter 30: The things to do before you get to the club

  • Time your set
    • A cardinal sin in the world of comedy clubs is going over your time and ignoring all signs to finish up your set
  • Memorize your set
  • Always have a copy of your set on you
    • Take out your notes if you need it. If you forget it, be in the room
    • Maybe have something prepared to tell the audience you forgot the joke in a funny ways 
  • Be dressed according to how you want the audience to see you
    • You can be as dressed up or more than them, but not less, especially if they’re paying

Chapter 31: before the show starts

  • Funny is funny no matter where you are in the show lineup
    • Don’t complain about your spot
  • Be sure to get into the zone, the right mind space, in order to give your peak performance

Chapter 32: showtime

  • Time your entrance onstage appropriately as well as when you start speaking and how you hold the mic
  • The audience feels what you feel
    • Therefore, whether or not a joke works, always have a good time
  • If the audience knows a joke didn’t work, this is your opportunity to get a laugh from a save
    • A save is another way of being in the room. Acknowledge that the joke didn’t work
  • If you find the audience isn’t laughing, try slowing down
    • Second thing you can do is change up your list
    • Third option is to start doing crowd work and talk directly to people so that they’ll engage with you and not ignore you
  • Give a warm thank you at the end 

Part Five: Get Undeniably Good

Chapter 33: building an all A set

  • Schedule a realistic amount of time in your calendar to write jokes
    • Treat it like your job if you want to do it professionally
  • Set yourself up to write in the places and times you most enjoy writing
  • In order to make an all a set, you have to decide in your mind that you will not settle for small laughs
  • You must pay attention to your paying live audience because they can give you feedback
  • When you have B and C jokes, your job is to move them up to an A
    • Sometimes, it just takes repetition so that you’re more comfortable saying the joke
    • If it still doesn’t work, clarify and simplify the joke
    • If it still doesn’t work, try changing the attitude underpinning it to the exact opposite
  • For industry showcases, he recommends cutting any A laughs that anyone can tell
    • They must be stamped with their own unique personas that no other standup could possible tell it as well
    • Building and growing an original A-set is a lifelong endeavor

Chapter 34: creating your persona

  • 2 questions to ask yourself when reviewing the recordings of your performances
    • After getting a big laugh ask yourself:
      • What was I talking about?
        • Creating a persona is like sculpting a work of art, chipping away at it by you and your audience
    • The 2nd question to ask when a joke gets a big laugh is:
      • What attitude did I play on that joke?
        • Write more jokes playing those same attitudes
  • A persona is not a standups offstage personality
    • It may have some aspects of it, but ultimately it is a creation of the standups imagination produced in conjunction with audiences over a span of usually several years
  • Don’t jump into a persona prematurely because once you choose one, everything you write and perform must be aligned with it
  • Be emotionally full when you perform
    • Vividly perform a wide range of emotions to find the ones that work best for you

Chapter 35: the six characteristics of a successful persona

  • Successful standups develop memorable personas
    1. Originality
      • The people who successfully break the rules are people who know them
    2. Genuineness
      • Genuineness is achieved by writing and performing jokes they give the audience the impression that what they’re hearing and seeing may be exaggerated but at its core it is the truth
    3. Vividness
      • Necessity in art is often the mother of excellence
      • Learn to write jokes that no matter their apparent subjects, ultimately are about you
    4. Likability
      • When your audience sees you struggle with something in the present that really matters to you, they laugh and they love you because you made their own struggles easier to bear
      • Having a struggle does not make you the victim, it makes you the leading character in your comedy
        • It makes you the person the audience is rooting for
    5. Stage presence
      • Good entertainment provides us with the opportunity to exercise our feelings
      • A performer succeeds to the degree that he or she engages the emotions of the audience. Moves the audience
        • Provides them with a heightened sense of being alive
        • Write and perform jokes that convey to your audience how you feel about everything you say
    6. Being funny
      • You can be as funny as you want to be of you are willing to put in the work

Chapter 36: the 7th characteristic

  • What’s your story?
    • If you can answer this coupled with the other characteristics, you’ll succeed
  • It can take 4-7 years for a comic to find there persona. Sometimes even longer
    • But the time it takes has nothing to do with level of success
  • There’s no such thing as overnight success in standup

Chapter 37: the “this joke used to kill and now it’s bombing what the hell is going on?” Checklist 

  1. You’re not performing it the same 
  2. The joke is dated
  3. You moved the placement of the joke
  4. The material is inappropriate for a particular audience
  5. Rosenfield’s law of relativity: audiences laugh hardest as what is relatively the funniest material in your set
    • Once you add higher quality material, this will lessen the quality of your once killer material. This is the best reason to cut out a joke

Chapter 38: Hosting

  • If you can MC, do it
    • If your persona allows it, and you’re able to get good at hosting, it’ll open up a lot of doors for you
    • The MC is usually the least experience standup, but he or she is the glue that holds the show together
  • The key to good hosting is unbridled enthusiasm for everything
  • You MC set should be clean and help the audience feel comfortable and in good hands for the rest of the show 
    • Short observations jokes work best, or jokes about current events
    • Written, tried and true crowd work also works well
  • Say something positive and enthusiastic about the standups whom you introduce

Chapter 39: the voice

  • Nerves feel exciting and fun scary. Rollercoaster scary
    • The voice is not fun scary, it’s terrifying. It’s intent is to hurt and stop you
    • The voice is threatened by your success, by you moving forward on the path that you know is the right path for you
  • The truth is the exact opposite of the voice

Chapter 40: everything you need to know about the business of standup comedy

  • Shoot for a goal of doing 1000 performances
  • Look for resources to help you learn and opportunities to refine your craft

Closing thoughts:

I might be very biased but I loved this book. It was exactly what I was looking for when looking for some sort of guide to doing standup comedy. I’m actually a beginner standup comedian, and I’ve done about a dozen shows so far. I obviously have a long way to go to get to my desired skill level, but I absolutely love the process of learning and refining my craft.

I actually took a 5-class, in-person course on standup comedy, which wet my appetite. My instructor said a big part of developing your skills was as much in-person/live stage practice as possible. However, I was looking to supplement my open mic performances with a hard, written guide for all of the other nuances that I would have no clue about until I got there. I’m the type that likes to learn about future obstacles as it’ll help me to get mentally prepared for them when I get there.

Overall, I highly recommend this book for anyone interested in actually performing standup comedy. Wouldn’t recommend it for anyone who just wants to learn about it passively without doing it, as this book really goes into the weeds on how to execute on becoming one.

One Takeaway / Putting into practice:

My biggest takeaway from this book is probably:

  • Funny is funny

The premise of this entire book was to help some improve at standup. It started off with a belief that you can become a successful standup comedian if you work at it. So even if you don’t think you’re funny now, it’s something you can work on. If you’re funny, it’s undeniable.


The ultimate guide to starting in standup comedy.

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Rating: 4.5 out of 5.


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